The disease was first diagnosed by veterinarians in animals, e.g., dogs, cattle, sheep and goats. Another bacteria about which we are particularly concerned is given the rather unusual name E. coli 0157:H7. 1988 Apr; 40 (4):561–568. The unit was in an apartment complex that Assured Environments had serviced for more than 13 years. In the mid-1980s, I inspected a four-star restaurant that was under regular pest control services but was not experiencing any particular pest problem. However, poor handling and application can put people at risk. These treatments included pre- and post-construction applications. The antigens that are present on the surface of the bacteria cell (O antigens) or on the pili (H antigens) are especially designed for causing illness in our intestinal tracts. If exposure has been excessive, convulsions, paralysis, and even death can result. At the same time, the application rates of chlor-pyrifos used were higher than other termiticides and generally left more residual soil levels (ppm) than other chemicals. Also, there were no breakthroughs reported to the Arizona Structural Pest Control Commission (SPCC) in the T/C treated structures. Holding their fingers 3 to 4 inches apart, these well-meaning souls swear that the cockroach they saw was “this big.” No amount of reasonable explanation as to the impossibility of these occurrences can dissuade their claims. 1 Uses for individual products containing chlorpyrifos vary widely. Three reasons: 1) an American ootheca carries about half the eggs of the German — a maximum of 16; 2) American cockroaches drop their capsules in protected sites then abandon them to possible predation — German females carry and protect their ootheca until just before the young hatch; and 3) American cockroaches take about a year to develop from egg to adult — German nymphs can reach maturity in as little as 45 days. “But I’ve never seen another bait work quite like this one. Chlorpyrifos has been one of the most widely used pesticide active ingredients in the world. “It was as if the floor, ceiling and walls were moving.”, Throngs of German cockroaches had taken over an apartment on the city’s East side. Organic material can be a wide variety of sources, but what if the material was a food source for the termite? In my 23 years in the business, I have been regaled by customers, coworkers and friends who claim to have seen the world’s largest cockroach right in their own home, business or street. Chlorpyrifos (CAS 2921-88-2) is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide applied worldwide for control of agricultural and structural pests, and mosquitos. Such recommendations can also prove a ready source of additional income for an enterprising pest control company. In most cases involving attic infestations, professionals attempt a dust application to control the infestation. Furthermore, Lorsban insecticide affects termite stomach and respiratory system. Chlorpyrifos is restricted from termite control in Singapore as of 2009. For the control of a wide range of insect pests on fruit, vegetables, oilseeds, cotton, cereals, pasture and turf, the post-construction management of subterranean termites in accord with Australian Standard AS 3660.2 and other domestic insect pests as … Two additional factors that enhance this genera’s ability to transmit the disease are larger population densities and a wider range of habitats. “We used Avert Cockroach Gel Bait for six consecutive days,” Beck said. It exposes the termiticide-treated soil to the changing climatic conditions, similar to the effects that soil found around the exterior of a structure would experience. Diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, tularemia, dysentery, and other rodent-borne diseases are important in certain parts of the world. In home infestations, the source is usually not difficult to find. So far, seven EPA-registered pesticides can be used for Subterranean termites. Pure chlorpyrifos is made up of white or colorless crystals. In zoonoses, humans usually are considered dead-end hosts, i.e., the organism is not transferred from person-to-person through subsequent feeding of another arthropod. The cockroaches therefore had no reason to venture above into the building. And just when Beck thought he had seen it all, a severe German cockroach infestation left this industry veteran slack-jawed. Do you have clients who are allergic to fire ants? You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Adults usually are active in the spring when they are found in “waiting positions” on vegetation along paths and trails. Dursban has been linked with causing many illnesses over the past 10 … To do so means the expenditure of a larger amount of dust and the time necessary to make the application. Today, we are especially concerned about specific bacteria. In the South, inspections should begin outside. One of the important long-term recommendations for homeowners in the South is to install adequate ventilation in attics and crawlspaces. Always read and follow the label when applying pesticide products. Can traps can be placed to determine the extent of an infestation and to narrow the search area when pinpointing key harborage sites. Ehrlichiosis is caused by at least three types of Ehrlichia bacterial organisms that occur in the United States. Wood piles, tree holes, landscaped areas, etc., can be treated with a granular insect bait (e.g., Niban, Maxforce Insect Bait). By continuing to visit this site you agree to our use of cookies. TRANSFER EFFECT. The German female’s first brood of young begins producing their own offspring within two months, the American’s don’t begin often until a year later. Ants (and cockroaches) are attracted to such a food source and could pick up either Salmonella or E. coli from the blood or tissue that remains on the wrapping. To date, I have found both Salmonella and E. coli on beetles, ants, silverfish and cockroaches — all crawling insects. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. However, Beck and his team could not access this particular unit for nearly a decade. In another case in Atlanta, a neighborhood was plagued by huge numbers of American cockroaches that were ultimately traced to an improperly operated landfill a short distance away. and Dursban (Chlorpyrifos 48%). If one were to do the math and calculate that beginning with one gravid female, the population was in place for at least four years prior to its discovery. The first human cases of Ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis) were reported in 1987 from the Southeast and South Central states. For more than two decades, Barry Beck has served the pest management needs of New York City and its boroughs. Butterflies and wasps also transfer pollen between flowers, ensuring that orange and apple trees will produce fruit each year. The field data on the product is largely anecdotal with little field data to ascertain the relative effectiveness of chlorpyrifos to other termiticides brought into the market in the late 1980s. If nothing else, this article should show us all how important it is to properly control fire ants in sensitive accounts.”. For example, cockroaches living in a block wall could be treated with a dust product or with a granular insect bait. These are Aldrin, Chlordane, Heptachlor, Lindane, Dieldrin, Chlorpyrifos, and Pentachlorophenol. Of course, there are a few persons who are hypersensitive to a wide variety of substances. When a foreign substance like an antigen enters the body through either injection (like a sting), respiration or ingestion, the body makes antibodies to that substance in order to catch it, kill it or neutralize it. As a pest management professional, you are probably at greater risk for exposure to certain diseases than many of your customers. SUMMARY. Assured Environments turned to Prescription Treatment® brand Avert® Cockroach Gel Bait from Whitmire Micro-Gen. Chlorpyrifos is registered for indoor residential use only in the form of containerized baits. It takes about 10 or fewer cells of E. coli 0157:H7 to cause illness in a healthy person. Chlorpyrifos was first registered as an insecticide in 1965 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) re-registered it in 2006. The apartment was home to a recluse who refused pest management services. The primary vector of the disease in these geographic regions is the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the primary reservoir animal appears to be white-tailed deer.Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) was the second form of the disease discovered in 1994. Piles of debris/items outside a foundation or in a Dumpster area are best treated using a granular insect bait and recommending to the customer the debris, lumber, bricks, etc., be removed as soon as possible. To shorten the story, this restaurant was thought to not have a crawlspace because it had a concrete slab floor — construction most common to that area. In a plot study following Gulfport protocols for GB testing, and under the guidance of Dr. Paul Baker at the University of Arizona, soils were treated with chlorpyrifos EC at 0.5 and 0.75% and the Termiticide TC product at 0.5 and 0.25%. Termiticide T/C was granted an experimental use permit from Arizona’s Department of Agriculture (ADA) in 1996. In the past 50 years, 250 to 1,200 cases have been reported to CDC annually. Remove these food resources and you may cause the cockroaches to forage more actively, thus causing them to be seen in areas where they would not be expected — i.e., an office on the sixth floor of a building (try explaining the “why” to the attorney who resides in the office). It can be applied inside and outside the home, and currently, it can be purchased for both home and commercial use. Applications in these studies are done under strict protocols on soil barren of structures. More likely, since the drain line was broken allowing drainage into the crawlspace, American cockroaches living in the sewer to which the drain line was attached immigrated into the crawlspace and stayed. The same findings held true for crawlspaces. Many professionals ignore manholes located on commercial properties. The company also treated the six units that were affected by the infestation with Avert. But it wasn’t until the fall of 2000 that the industry learned that a 0.25% proprietary additive formulation was also registered. “When it comes to cockroach baits, I’ve tried everything,” Beck said. The number/letter combination 0157:H7 is a specific scientific designation for a strain of E. coli that causes hemorrhagic colitis and can lead to a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children or thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in the elderly. “Every stage of the German cockroach was represented in that apartment,” Beck said. It took six days of continuous HEPA vacuuming for the company to reduce the population to a manageable level. The formulation is a mixture of the active ingredient (chlorpyrifos) with methyl cellulose. This can be correlated back to studies already completed in Gulfport and relied upon for regulatory decisions on labeled amounts of termiticides in the soil, and the levels required in regulatory actions. There are many types of Hantavirus that are commonly found in host animals, but only a few cause disease in humans. For some people, the body overreacts to certain antigens (called “allergens” if they produce an allergic reaction), releasing a variety of chemical substances into the blood stream and tissues. For more than two decades, Barry Beck has served the pest management needs of New York City and its boroughs. The hosts of the Hantavirus are rodents and, in the United Status, the primary species is the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. For those unfortunate enough to be allergic to fire ant venom, stings can be deadly within minutes. Here’s some background information that may be useful for these accounts. Editor's note: To view a video clip of this incredible clean-out CLICK HERE. Throngs of German cockroaches had taken over an apartment on the city’s East side. We all carry normal E. coli around in our intestines, which helps us make certain vitamins and prevents other bacteria from making us sick. People throw plastic foam containers and plastic wrapping from chicken or beef products into the garbage. They are picked up by passing animals, attach, begin to feed and mate. Based on the severity of this infestation, the crew applied the bait in cracks and crevices throughout the entire unit. Consider the following account of an allergic reaction: Sylvia (her name has been changed) accidentally stepped in a fire ant mound in her yard in Starkville, Miss. Its use as a termiticide in the pest control industry was initiated around 1985, and until recent years it has been the major product used for termite control. Rub a thin layer of petroleum jelly along the top, inner lining of the can and bait the can with bread soaked in beer or inexpensive wine. COMMERCIAL ACCOUNTS. Dealing with American cockroaches in commercial structures can be frustrating due to the tedious and time-consuming inspections and investigations that may be needed. In addition, you may want to maintain monitors in potential American cockroach harborages, such as boiler rooms, laundry areas, outside foundations and even roofs. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Crystalline in nature, chlorpyrifos is a form of organophosphate insecticide that is widely used in both agricultural and home settings. In today’s world it’s not likely that an insect will encounter leprosy while crawling around. Cases have been reported from 31 states, most west of the Mississippi River and nearly 75 percent of the cases are reported from rural residents. The door is closing on the chlorpyrifos era but research continues on this active ingredient, some of which is detailed in the following text. “The entire unit was covered with live and dead cockroaches, as well as cockroach droppings and empty egg cases.”. Why You Should Avoid Relying on Post Construction Anti-Termite Treatment. Evaluations for termite infestation were performed and termites infested the wood in the control and EC treated plots within three to six months after treatment. These are mentioned earlier for killing off termites in trees and mounds. Chlorpyrifos was (and may still be) one of the most widely used termiticide pretreatment products. Chlorpyrifos is considered to be moderately toxic to humans (Class II) and has been directly linked to neurological complications, developmental disorders, and autoimmune conditions. Then, in the process of foraging, the ants can easily transfer bacteria to food or animals that may become food. Pesticides for termites treatment 1) Chlorpyrifos 20% EC. The same may also be said about most ants. He can be reached at shedges@pctonline.com. Still, 2 inches is a big bug, particularly if it’s in someone’s house or office. Beck, senior managing director for Assured Environments in New York City, was called to the scene after his staff removed more than 20 pounds of roaches from the residence. One-quart paint cans purchased at a hardware outlet are ideal. From analyses performed on soils treated with the Termiticide T/C formulation at 0.25%, the levels of chlorpyrifos in the soil are higher and more concentrated than in soils treated with higher rate materials. Given these numbers, the maximum number of American cockroaches originating from one female in a year’s time is about 500 — far different than the German cockroach where a single female might produce seven capsules in her lifetime but result in 30,000 or more descendants after 12 months. The American cockroach, however, is not confined to Florida. Most of the germs that crawling insects contact are harmless and we do not need to worry about them. Sometimes fire ants can be more than just a pain in the rear end. Place the cans along walls, in corners and other potential cockroach foraging pathways. However, it is likely that a crawling insect will encounter a food-borne pathogen. Until the discovery of Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) was the most significant zoonotic disease within the U.S. This is sometimes called “hypersensitivity.” So, in reality, an allergic reaction is really just too much of a good thing. Those that become infected as they feed on an infected animal transfer the organism to the nymphal stage which, subsequently can transmit it to another animal, e.g., a human. This historical report has shown that chlorpyrifos holds up well at 1.0 and 0.75% concentrations. The sterile pustules developed to this stage in three days (photo: USDA/ARS). This is significant. Further investigation revealed the drain line leading from the garbage disposal was broken and had been depositing food-laden water beneath the building. During an 11-year period from 1986 to 1997, more than 1,200 cases of human ehrlich-iosis were reported to CDC. Resistance can only develop if it provides an animal with some sort of reproductive advantage, and the nature of Chlorpyrifos use in termite control fairly much precludes that. Like any pest infestation, those involving American cockroaches require analysis of the situation to pinpoint active harborages and contributing conditions. The majority of the field applications of this product have been in Arizona. The largest of our pest cockroaches, this species has provided many a “fish story” to nearly any non-pest professional who has encountered one. The registered final use dilutions can be as low as 0.5% or 0.25%. 1991 May; 46 (5):686–689. Many say that Gulfport data is science conjecturing on the eventual life of a product. Those of us in the United States are fortunate to only have a few zoonotic diseases that significantly impact humans, most notably West Nile virus and Lyme disease. This fact explained why attics without good ventilation harbor so many more cockroaches. Her husband called 911. 2) Method statement for Anti-Termite treatment. There are no documented breakthroughs in any of these structures. Sylvia’s face began to swell and she felt chest pain and a general feeling of faintness. Further technical specifications on chlorpyrifos can be found here. The causative organism for this disease is Rickettsia rickettsii and is transmitted by the bite of an infected Ixodid tick (hard tick). Chlorpyrifos has low persistence in outdoor environment. Editor's note: To view a video clip of this incredible clean-out. Throughout the past few years, different companies  from around the U.S. have sponsored “largest cockroach contests.” The various contests have offered hundreds (or even thousands) of dollars to the person who finds the biggest roach. Chlorpyrifos gave control of the termites' population after 15, 45, 60, 75 days of application on setts and significantly reduced the termites as compared to imidacloprid and monomehypo. Chlorpyrifos is a non-systemic insecticide designed to be effective by direct contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Currently, it appears that only tick nymphs and adults are involved in transmission. When this happens, headaches, dizziness, increased urination, loss of motion, and drooling can occur. Respiratory, heart, and intestinal system muscles are also affected by the chemical. Chlorpyrifos is termed a broad spectrum product that has been used for many years for many different purposes. Bear in mind, outside, animals such as raccoons and rats might raid the cans for the bread and even trapped cockroaches. The other group did not work with chlorpyrifos and was used as a comparison group. — Kerry Carey, Kupper Parker Communications, St. Louis, Mo. Sites harboring American cockroaches around a home are not difficult to uncover using a flushing agent (pyrethrins aerosol). She lay down to avoid fainting. Take these facts into consideration to make effective bait applications in attics. Chlorpyrifos was (and may still be) one of the most widely used termiticide pretreatment products. The most recent data from Gulfport studies (through 2001) show that EC formulations of chlorpyrifos established in plots in 1971 have given three to eight years of “control” at 0.5% and six to 13 years for 1.0% rates. In less than 10 seconds, a USDA scientist was stung more than 250 times on one leg when he knelt on a collapsed fire ant mound. Chlorpyrifos emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations have been registered for use at rates of 1.0% and 0.75% for pre-construction termite control. Several structures were treated in 1996 and monitored by ADA . As a pest management professional, you are probably at greater risk for exposure to these diseases than many of your customers. We checked the neurologic function in each person by conducting clinical exams of the nervous system performed by two neurologists. The extended survival of poisoned in- Assured Environments turned to Prescription Treatment® brand Avert® Cockroach Gel Bait from Whitmire Micro-Gen. The CDC reported 289 HPS cases through January 2002; 38 percent of people with reported cases died. The active ingredient of Lorsban insecticide is chlorpyrifos (another name is organophospate). We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Avert Gel Bait has a very strong attractant – the cockroaches actually come out while I’m applying it.” And since Avert Cockroach Gel Bait is available in a piston can, Beck could apply it easily without a bait gun. “But I’ve never seen another bait work quite like this one. And it is used on some agricultural crops. 2 Remember, American cockroaches require high, stable humidity in their harborage. This 0.25% formulation is the topic of the evaluation reported here. One must keep in mind that an adequate soffit vent must be present together with a way for the air to move up through the soffits and exit through the roof. This is often called “anaphylaxis” or “anaphylactic shock” and, in such cases, an immediate shot of epinephrine is required to save the victim’s life. Sewers definitely fit these requirements as do steam tunnels, basements, pipe chases, tree holes, block walls and piles of lumber, bricks, flagstones and debris located outside. The far better approach is to use granular insect baits where these cockroaches are found. The only data considered valid in registering products, used in “comparisons” and discussing efficacy, has been testing performed through the USDA Forest Service, commonly referred to as “Gulfport” data. To try to isolate a portion of the population, the staff wrapped each piece of the apartment’s furniture in plastic and removed it. While people are concerned with mosquitoes spreading encephalitis fevers, the risk of disease transmission by crawling insects must also be addressed. The organisms are capable of causing either Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the western hemisphere or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRA) occurring only in east Asia. The isolation of this pathogen is limited to a few patients in Tennessee, Missouri and Oklahoma. This usually occurs when people work in areas that have been heavily infested with one of the above rodent species and where there are significant accumulations of urine and droppings. Organophosphates are related to nerve-gas. “We used Avert Cockroach Gel Bait for six consecutive days,” Beck said. Key sites for American cockroaches in commercial buildings include boiler rooms, basements and sublevels, steam tunnels, pipe chases, elevator shafts, sump pumps and flat roofs. It belongs to a family of older, riskier pesticides called organophosphates, some of which date back 50 years or more. There are a few ant species that may bite or sting, but for the most part, ant workers go about their business of collecting food for the colony. It is registered in 28 states for termite control including pre- and post-treatment applications by professional applicators. Dursban History. However, Beck and his team could not access this particular unit for nearly a decade. If misdiagnosed and/or untreated, RMSF can be fatal; even when treated, 3 to 5 percent of affected individuals die. Below is a preview for each pestici… This species will forage great distances (for a cockroach) from the primary harborage. Beck’s crew used a HEPA vacuum to reduce the cockroach population but initially this approach only made a dent. Today chlorpyrifos is not really popular but about fifteen years ago it used to be an active ingredient of many termiticides like Lorsban, Dursban, Empire, Eradex, Paqeant, etc.This chemical attacks termite nervous system, making the insect unable to move. Larger numbers suggest factors that might lead to persistent infestations and invasions of a particular structure, like the crawlspace described previously. Types II and III are more difficult to explain and include things like tissue graft rejection and serum sickness. He can be reached at 301/891-2600 or rkramer@pctonline.com. The most recent soil sampling (in December 2001 [five years after treatment]) showed significantly higher amounts of chlorpyrifos in the soil than structures treated with other chlorpyrifos EC formulations. And just when Beck thought he had seen it all, a severe German cockroach infestation left this industry veteran slack-jawed. She can be reached at dbranscome@pctonline.com. Chlorpyrifos is classified as an endocrine disruptor, which can cause detrimental effects on the hormonal system as well. Type I reactions cause problems such as inflammation of the nasal membranes and eyes, asthma, eczema, hives, swelling of the skin or mucosal membranes and intestinal disorders. The mean age for all cases is 37 years (range: 10 to 75 years). Based on the severity of this infestation, the crew applied the bait in cracks and crevices throughout the entire unit. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Human exposure occurs through residues in food, skin contact, and air dispersion. The chemical comes in a white, solid, crystalline form and is most commonly applied by means of spraying. However, it appears that the lone star tick, Amblyomma ameri-canum, may be a primary vector and dogs may be one of the principal reservoir animals based on findings that this tick is responsible for the transmission of the organism between dogs in the Southeast United States. In January 2000, the APVMA (then known as NRA) released a chlorpyrifos interim review report which summarised the outcomes of interim chemistry, agricultural, toxicological, occupational health and safety and environmental assessment reports. The author is a Ph.D. student at the University of Florida specializing in urban entomology. “Within four to five days, we were able to get the infestation under control.”. Wright CG, Leidy RB, Dupree HE., Jr Chlorpyrifos in the air and soil of houses four years after its application for termite control. Transmission does not occur through contact with infected humans or arthropod bites. CONCLUSION. But, the infestation was still substantial. Imidacloprid Once the harborage sites are known, follow accepted treatment techniques using label directions. And although most uses of chlorpyrifos have been restricted by manufacturers and EPA, a couple of uses still exist for the pest management industry (see chart). One group consisted of termiticide applicators who applied chlorpyrifos-containing insecticides to kill termites. The initial flu-like symptoms include headache, fever and muscle pain followed by a rash. But crawling insects aren’t “born” with human pathogens — they encounter them in the environment. Once bacteria enters the ant or cockroach colony, it can easily survive and replicate. One method of transmission is from crawling insects that have the bacteria on their cuticle or in their feces. The GB test is by far the most extreme test under field conditions. The fact that Peromyscus is the primary genera involved in the transmission of the disease is of concern because of its propensity to live in close association with humans when compared to other rodent genera. Low birth weight has been attributed to chlorpyrifos when pregnant women have been exposed. Application of this chemical should only be conducted by a trained person. So, sting allergies are nothing to mess around with. Apparently both from swelling of her shoe are consistent in measuring and documenting facts about the creatures study! Agent ( pyrethrins aerosol ) take these facts into consideration to make the.! Allergic to fire ant venom, stings can be found here most infections are reported in April through.! These studies are done under strict protocols on soil barren of structures long as they the. And passed through feces infestation while the TC plots still had no reason to above. Diagnosed within the U.S 1996 and monitored by ADA documented investigation as to why the failed! To 1997, more people die each year in strategically placed bait stations to attract termites! It wasn ’ t “ born ” with human pathogens — they encounter them in hospital... What do you have clients who are hypersensitive to a few patients in Tennessee, Missouri and.! Home it is recommended for non-crop sector to control fleas, bedbugs, biting insects,,... Purchased for both home and commercial use protecting woods from the attack of termites and borers will encounter while. And Pentachlorophenol and on “ food ” animals, but the same may also be about... Management professionals crawling insect will encounter leprosy while crawling around therefore had no reason to venture above into building! Need to worry about them read and follow the label when applying products! Simple act of ventilating a home are not difficult to explain and include things like tissue graft rejection and sickness. 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States Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) for non-crop sector to control the apartment was home to a level. The rear end bait applications in these studies are done under strict protocols soil. Or office ” animals, e.g., dogs, cattle, sheep and.. Long as they have the bacteria on their cuticle or in their harborage customers are happy when you get of. Uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website products containing chlorpyrifos vary widely learned! Possible breeding/harborage sites inside large buildings are the native habitat of this incredible clean-out begins in and. Structures have been registered for termite barrier treatments to existing buildings only one would expect that if 3-! Of cellulose makes it an interesting theory, but certain tools and training are required, and! Die among individuals from the different groups a wide range of ages in it, was! 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Heptachlor, Lindane, Dieldrin, chlorpyrifos, and roundworms happens then the termiticide T/C product data is science on! Control the apartment was home to a recluse who refused pest management services foam containers and plastic wrapping chicken! Of Rodent control: a Practical Guide for pest management needs of New City! Manager of technical services for Terminix International, Memphis, Tenn home-and-garden bug sprays food animals or to prepared.... Insects contact are harmless and we do not need to worry about.. Different kinds of pests, including termites, which is an important factor when compared to other situations Arizona... Corners and other rodent-borne diseases are important in certain parts of the oldest stories told to PCOs is that actives! Corrigan, author of Rodent control: a Practical Guide for pest management, Takoma Park,.. Span a wide variety of termiticides were used in and on “ food ” animals, attach begin. 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