Permethrin is found in a number of different flea products for dogs, including spot-on treatments, shampoos, sprays and flea collars and is a common ingredient in household flea sprays and powders. Permethrin toxicity isn’t the same for dogs and cats, which is why you’ll find flea collars or spot-on flea treatment for dogs containing permethrin in pet stores. Permethrin is known to act on the nervous system of parasites like fleas and cause paralysis. Expect your veterinarian to recommend hospitalization with continuous intravenous fluids. toxicity (Sutton et al, 2007). Toxicity can occur if a dog is given an excessive dose of the medication (10 to 20 times the recommended dose). cats are more likely to develop permethrin toxicosis than dogs, as the feline liver is deficient in the glucuronide transferase enzyme. Ingestion of tremorgenic mycotoxins formed in spoiled food can cause an acute tremor syndrome, the severity of which can range from mild to life-threatening. An estimated 288 cases of feline permethrin toxicosis are reported per year (Sutton et al, 2007), one fifth of reported cases Ma- lik et al (2010) suggests may result in fatalities. Symptoms are usually mild and short term, however any neurological side effect should be attended to by a veterinarian. If clinical signs/symptoms have developed, treatment will be based on the symptoms and route of exposure (skin, ingested, etc.). In cats it may induce hyperexcitability, tremors, seizures, and death. Permethrin is metabolized (broken down by) the liver. These products contain high concentrations (45-65%) of permethrin insecticide and are becoming a very popular choice for flea and tick control for dogs. Rats fed 150 mg/kg/day for 6 months showed a slight increase in liver weights. It is not safe for dogs treated with this product to swim in a pool or lake. https://woofwhiskers.com/complete-guide-to-permethrin-for-dogs Pyrethrin/pyrethroid toxicity in cats is most commonly the result of someone who, in an effort to save time or money, used a pyrethrin/pyrethroid-containing product intended for dogs on their cat(s). Additionally, certain dogs are genetically hypersensitive to the medication. It is suspected that cats may be more likely to develop permethrin toxicity because they have different liver metabolic pathways to other species — in particular, they have a deficiency in the enzyme hepatic glucuronosyl transferase. Even a small drop of permethrin can kill pet fish. It’s less dangerous to your pet, and less expensive for you to treat early. Evaluation of Permethrin and Indoxacarb in Dogs Topically Exposed .... toxicity and safety of Activyl® in dogs, as well as assessed the potential. Permethrin is highly toxic to cats, it affects their nervous system, first causing it to become over sensitive (twitching/seizures) and then causing paralysis. Although skin and hair tests can be done to confirm the presence of insecticide, those results may take several days. Permethrin toxicity is a common poisoning in cats. Genetic hypersusceptibility to pyrethrins/pyrethroids. Be cautious about the number of different flea/tick products used on your dog. Treatment for PERMETHRIN toxicity involves an antidote that settles the muscle tremors and seizures. Keep your dog away from any areas (indoors and out) that have been treated with a pyrethrin or pyrethroid product until it has completely dried. Predisposing factors General. Pyrethroids are similar, but are synthetic rather than naturally based, and are longer lasting; these include allethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, fluvalinate, permethrin, phenothrin, tetramethrin, and etofenprox. This is further complicated by the fact that canine marketed permethrin products typically contain 45-60% permethrin while safe feline marketed products contain less than 0.1%. To prevent accidental exposure, read the directions for any product carefully before use. because permethrin (a pyrethroid) is highly toxic to cats and is found in many insecticide and pest control products (e.g. The use of pyrethrins/pyrethroids is very safe in dogs; however, cats and fish are very sensitive to pyrethrins/pyrethroids. The diagnosis of pyrethroid toxicosis is mainly based on the history,the clinical signs and evaluation of differential diagnoses. (2014) Treatment of ibuprofen toxicosis in a dog with IV lipid emulsion. Toxicity occurs as a result of an insufficient glucuronide conjugation of the permethrin by the feline liver, resulting in high levels of the permethrin. Permethrin toxicity in cats. This is because insects can't break it down as quickly as people and dogs. How Are Cats Poisoned? Researchers deter-mined the NOAEL to be 50 mg/kg per day for this study, based on The sooner you seek treatment, the better the prognosis and outcome for your pet! There are several commercial products that contain permethrin in combination with certain insect growth inhibitors. Signs of flea product toxicity in dogs may include: The diagnosis of permethrin or pyrethrin toxicity is based on physical exam findings as well as a recent history of topical flea product application. Permethrin based topical flea products are usually labeled “for use in dogs only.” There is a wide safety margin for permethrins in dogs. Never use a product on a pet that’s not intended to be used on animals! Pyrethrin/pyrethroid toxicity in cats is most commonly the result of someone who, in an effort to save time or money, used a pyrethrin/pyrethroid-containing product intended for dogs on their cat(s). In a dog, symptoms will usually develop within the first hour after ingestion, and may include any or all of the following mild signs: Other signs of a dermal (skin) reaction to a pyrethrin or pyrethroid for a dog include the following signs below. Parents should not use permethrin on children under two months. The minimum toxic dose in cattle and sheep is 4.5 mg/kg, becoming lethal at 18 and 9 mg/kg, respectively. When used according to label directions, pyrethrins are safe and effective. Please don’t give medications designed for canines to your cat and that includes pest prevention products. Accidental oral administration of a canine spot-on preparation. The IHC Group. Use on cats of a permethrin-containing product formulated for dogs. Fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, and other insects can harm your dog’s health. No significant side-effects in dogs treated with veterinary medicines containing permethrin have been reported. However, cats are very sensitive to permethrin and even a therapeutic dose for a … This report details information on toxicity in cats following application with permethrin-containing ectoparasiticides indicated for dogs, or contact with permethrin-treated dogs. The ticks from this location had a treatment history of both permethrin and fipronil topical spot-on treatments; however, the owners reported inconsistent use of these products. If the symptoms are severe, your veterinarian will not wait to confirm the diagnosis before beginning treatment. Onset of symptoms can come in only a few hours, or they may take a few days to show up. The most common types of insecticide used to kill fleas are pyrethrins. Do not use flea shampoo. not showing severe clinical signs), your veterinarian may start by bathing your pet with a liquid dish soap to prevent further exposure. The toxicity of permethrin is dependent on the ratio of the isomers present; the cis-isomer being more toxic. Dogs do not have a reaction to the PERMETHRIN unless severely overdosed over a period of time. This Case report describes acute pyrethroid toxicity in a king Charles cavalier dog. Whenever permethrin poisoning is known or suspected, it’s important to let the manufacturer know, as well as the local drug regulatory authorities (your vet can help with this). Permethrin is a synthetic insecticide also known as a pyrethroid class insecticide that’s used to kill and control flea infections in dogs. Very low levels of 2000 Nov 4;147(19):556. The Gilchrist strain originated from a home with 19 dogs and had an exceedingly large brown dog tick population, which demonstrated resistance levels to permethrin and tolerance to fipronil. Permethrin flea and tick products for dogs are safe for dogs, if you follow the instructions on the label and packaging carefully. Kitty’s close call should be a lesson to us all. Sulfur, however, is safe for treating infants. Avoid hot water since that will dilate blood vessels in the skin and increase the absorption of the flea product. A wide range of flea treatments for dogs contain permethrin, and these are often inexpensive, over-the-counter preparations, provided without veterinary advice. Chronic toxicity: No adverse effects were observed in dogs fed permethrin at doses of 5 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Chronic Toxicity: Animals. Permethrin can be absorbed into the body from coming into contact with the skin, or by being ingested or swallowed. No. Very low levels of permethrin in the diet of chickens (0.1 ppm for 3 to 6 weeks after hatching) have been reported to suppress immune system activity. but to our knowledge, pyrethrins or pyrethroid toxicity has not been reported yet in dogs. Common symptoms of permethrin poisoning include drooling, acting strangely, twitching and fitting. Application or administration of excessive amount of insecticide. You must be especially careful if you also have a cat in your home. safety-evaluation-of-permethrin-and-indoxacarb-in-dogs-topically-exposed-to-activyl-tick-plus-2157-7579.1000218.pdf. Your veterinarian will make a presumptive diagnosis if there’s a known or possible history of exposure to a product containing a pyrethrin or pyrethroid, coupled with symptoms described above. The severity of permethrin toxicity varies with each individual. Cats are also very sensitive to pyrethrins and pyrethroids, because they’re unable to metabolize (break down) these agents quickly and efficiently due to their peculiar liver metabolism. Chronic Toxicity: Animals. In Australia, 41 of 42 cases of permethrin toxicity in cats was the result of a permethrin spot on product manufactured for dogs being misused. What are the symptoms of permethrin poisoning in cats? The insecticide will enter the water and pose a threat to the fish. Topical flea and tick spot-on medications often contain high concentrations of pyrethrin/pyrethrins, but these are commonly used on dogs without serious problems. Additional recommendations for treatment may include: If you suspect your dog may have permethrin/pyrethrin toxicity, the most important part of home care is to bathe your dog in lukewarm water using mild dish soap. The use of pyrethrins/pyrethroids is very safe in dogs; however, cats and fish are very sensitive to pyrethrins/pyrethroids. Products with permethrin commonly contain Overdosing can cause toxic signs in both dogs and cats. residues of permethrin and pyriproxyfen in the blood and hair coat of six dogs treated topically with VetGuard Plus®. Higher concentrations can be safely used on dogs; however, cats are very sensitive to these chemicals and cannot metabolize these drugs well as dogs. The dog… Why is permethrin toxic to cats but not dogs? It thus stops fleas from biting the dog, 5 minutes after it has been applied. Permethrin has low toxicity to humans and most mammals at levels used to control pests. Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. It’s safe to use on dogs but is extremely poisonous for cats. Overdosing can cause serious health problems for your dog. Likewise, if you apply a topical flea and tick preventative or treatment onto your dog, do not allow him to jump into a body of water where fish may be living (for instance, a koi pond or a neighboring creek) for at least 24-48 hours following application. Almost a week ago, my small dog began losing control of one of his limbs and is losing more mobility and energy as time goes on. Accidental oral administration of a canine spot-on preparation. When orally administered to dogs, d -limonene causes vomiting (median effective dose 1.6 mL/kg). Chronic Toxicity: Animals • Dogs fed daily doses of permethrin at 0, 5, 50 or 500 mg/kg body weight per day for at least 96 days showed transient signs of permethrin toxi-cosis at the highest dose used, including tremors. These products are derived from the chrysanthemum plant. No compound-related gross or microscopic pathological changes were observed in the dogs, rats, or guinea pigs as a result of permethrin inhalation (Metker, 1978). Heather Handley, Staff Veterinarian, Pet Poison Helpline. Left untreated, permethrin poisoning is usually fatal. Pyrethroids are similar, but are synthetic rather than naturally based, and are longer lasting; these include allethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, fluvalinate, permethrin, phenothrin, tetramethrin, and etofenprox. However, quick and effective treatment with decontamination (e.g., bathing with liquid dish soap), anti-seizure drugs, muscle relaxants (e.g., methocarbamol), temperature monitoring, blood work (e.g., blood glucose) monitoring, and IV fluids are beneficial. In these dogs, ivermectin can pass directly to the brain and be toxic or even lethal. Permethrin based topical flea products are usually labeled “for use in dogs only.” There is a wide safety margin for permethrins in dogs. Pet Poison Helpline is available in North America by calling 800-213-6680. This is why we strongly recommend using the pre-mixed ready-to-spray products offered by Sawyer. Permethrin poisoning is still one of the most common poisonings of cats worldwide and it can be life-threatening. literature regarding permethrin toxicity in cats [7,12-26]. Cats or dogs with liver dysfunction or portosystemicshunts are at greater risk for signs of toxicity due to decreased hydrolysisof the pyrethroid ester linkages. Toxicity is also reported in dogs. Until recently the Cats, however, are exquisitely susceptible to the toxic effects of permethrins. October 15, 2013. Permethrin has been FDA-approved for use on dogs and is available over the counter. (MacDonald, 1995) Permethrin toxicity usually occurs when the owner applies the dog spot-on product to the cat; however, cats which actively groom or engage in close physical contact with recently treated dogs may also be at risk of toxic exposure. This is why it’s so important to get help immediately. Remember – your dog’s medication is meant for dogs only. Left untreated, permethrin poisoning is usually fatal. If your veterinarian has a chance to provide prompt, early treatment, the prognosis is generally good if the dog does not develop further complications secondary to neurological signs. This is because permethrin is more toxic than the chrysanthemum flower. If you suspect that your dog is having a severe reaction to a pyrethrin or pyrethroid, please bring your dog to your regular or emergency veterinarian immediately. Your vet will assess your dog’s condition before deciding on a treatment path. This means that people may accidentally use a dog product on their cat, or apply a dog flea product to a cat intentionally to avoid having to purchase multiple products, not realising the risk. Permethrin is used in some flea spot-on products made for dogs, and occasionally (in lower doses) in flea powders and collars for cats. Permethrin can affect insects if they eat it or touch it. The Western Journal of Medicine. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 40:129-134. Unfortunately, exposure to concentrated permethrin (as in some dog spot-ons) can result in serious illness and even death in cats. Pulmonary function, clinical chemistry values, and blood-cell counts were normal. These signs can develop within 15 minutes to several hours after exposure. Chronic toxicity: No adverse effects were observed in dogs fed permethrin at doses of 5 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Permethrin toxicity in cats Overview Permethrin is a chemical used to treat fleas. Permethrin is common in flea and tick control purchased at grocery stores and big-box stores. Pigs have been poisoned after drinking water contaminated by this compound. Toxicity occurs as a result of an insufficient glucuronide conjugation of the permethrin by the feline liver, resulting in high levels of the permethrin. Pesticide-grade permethrin is toxic to cats. In all cases with the development of neurological signs (e.g., twitching, tremors, seizures), your dog will require hospitalization for typically 48 - 72 hours for monitoring and any supportive care that may be needed as symptoms can seem to resolve but then reoccur. Dogs fed daily doses of permethrin at 0, 5, 50 or 500 mg/kg body weight per day for at least 96 days showed transient signs of permethrin toxicosis at the highest dose used, including tremors. While permethrin is safe on dogs, even small amounts of the ingredient on the skin of cats can cause deadly problems. Allergic sensitivity to pyrethrins/pyrethroids. Additional information can be found online at www.petpoisonhelpline.com. Researchers fed dogs and mice permethrin for up to 2 years and found that their livers increased in weight. The formulations of these products vary in concentration, synergists, and carriers depending on their intended use, which may include: Whether or not a pyrethrin or pyrethroid product is toxic depends on the animal species involved, as well as the concentration, synergists and carriers used in the product. This toxic reaction occurs especially in dogs that are genetically hypersensitive to ivermectin, an anti-parasite medication most commonly used for heartworm prevention, or to treat ear and hair mites, which can lead to mange.Ivermectin prevents or kills parasites by causing neurological damage to the parasite, resulting in paralysis and death for the parasite. Comment on Vet Rec. Fish are so sensitive that they may die from even the smallest exposure, so be sure to cover aquarium tanks (with something non-porous like plastic wrap) or remove the tanks from an area you’ll be treating with a product containing a pyrethrin or pyrethroid (e.g., foggers, sprays, etc.). Over the years there has been increasing controversy about the use of permethrin in pet products. With any poisoning, rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative! Whether or not a pyrethrin or pyrethroid product is toxic depends on the animal species involved, as well as the concentration, synergists and carriers used in the product. Whether or not a pyrethrin or pyrethroid product is toxic depends on the animal species involved, as well as the concentration, synergists and carriers used in the product. Treatment involves eliminating any existing product from the body and controlling seizures and muscle tremors. Additional treatment is probably required. Permethrin affects the nervous system in insects, causing muscle spasms, paralysis and death. Even if the concentration of insecticide may be low, the carriers in such products may be harmful to animals. In one case, permethrin caused tremors, facial twitching and salivation. The exterminator said to keep the dog away from … This is rarely a good idea for any product, but it's especially dangerous when those products contain pyrethrin, permethrin, or another pyrethroid. There is no antidote for pyrethrin or pyrethroid toxicity. Application of permethrin-based insecticide to a cat will usually result in toxic signs within 6 hours. We’re committed to keeping clients and staff safe during COVID-19 with NEW admittance and check-out processes. It’s good information to have should your dog need to see a vet. The use of pyrethrins/pyrethroids is very safe in dogs; however, cats and fish are very sensitive to pyrethrins/pyrethroids. Toxicity occurs when the concentrated dog product is applied to cats. Fortunately, many products are available to reduce the flea population within our homes and on our dogs. When used in combination with drugs such as imidacloprid, the medication works effectively to kill both adult fleas and flea larvae. Permethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that is similar to the natural insecticide, pyrethrum. The trans isomer metabolism is dominated by hydrolysis (and excreted more rapidly) whereas the cis isomers are less easily hydrolysed and more toxic, so a slower rate of hydrolysis in cats compared to other species is a possibility. In addition, your veterinarian’s team carefully monitors the dog’s temperature for an elevated or lowered reading. Cats are highly sensitive to permethrin and are more likely to develop signs of toxicity than dogs. Some of the reasons why cats develop permethrin poisoning is they are: Given preventative flea and tick treatments made for dogs; In close contact or groom a dog who recently was given a flea and tick prevention product; Given an overdose of cat flea and tick treatment ; What are the signs and symptoms of permethrin poisoning? Overdosing can cause toxic signs in both dogs and cats. Dogs are commonly poisoned with malicious intent by tainting food. How is dog poisoning treated? Use the appropriate-sized product for the weight range for your dog. Clarke DL, Lee JA, Murphy LA, Reineke EL. When in doubt, bring your dog to the veterinarian for a free “weigh-in!”. Why can permethrin be used in products for dogs but not for cats? fly spray, garden insect sprays, cockroach spray, ant powder, mosquito coils) and many flea and tick spot-on products for dogs. Permethrin can kill a broad range of pests, such as fleas, ticks, cockroaches, flies, and mosquitoes. Fleas are frustrating and annoying insects that thrive on our dogs, and getting rid of them is an important and sometimes difficult process. Genetic hypersusceptibility to pyrethrins/pyrethroids. Use on cats of a permethrin-containing product formulated for dogs. The inclusion of piperonyl butoxide in the formulation potentiates the toxicity in cats. Even worse is the fact that loving owners can accidentally poison their cats by using dog flea spot-on products containing permethrin because they do not recognise the dangers. Pyrethrum is found in chrysanthemums. Between 4-5 mL of blood were collected in EDTA tubes via jugular venipuncture at 0, 1, 2, and 3 days after VetGuard Plus® application. It penetrates insect shells and paralyzes their nervous systems. Cats have an immediate toxicity reaction to the standard dog doses and so should only ever be treated with “cat only” products. This is further complicated by the fact that canine marketed permethrin products typically contain 45-60% permethrin … Permethrin is also toxic to fish and bees. Do not use flea shampoo. Permethrin Toxicity (with thanks to owner for permission) This kitty was exposed to a top spot flea product meant for a dog. Since some fertilizers also contain these products, dogs should be kept off the lawn to prevent accidental ingestion. Rats fed 150 mg/kg/day for 6 months showed a slight increase in liver weights. Allergies have also been reported in people in contact with d -limonene, and it appears to increase dermal absorption of some chemicals.  This type of product generally lasts for about 30 days. Toxicity related to pyrethrins is usually associated with applying much more of the product than directed. CASE REPORT. Although permethrin toxicity is well recognised in cats, ... Of cats that developed signs following permethrin application to dogs in the same household, one developed signs 6 h after it was applied to the dog and two developed clinical signs the day after application to the dog. Many cats die after being given flea treatments intended for dogs, or by contact with dogs having recently been treated with permethrin. Avoid hot water since that will dilate blood vessels in the skin and increase the absorption of the flea product. "Fatal asthma in a child after use of an animal shampoo containing pyrethrin". The most popular products include those supplied in small tubes that are applied to the back of the dog. Dogs can also be exposed to lower concentrations when these products are used inside or outside the home (e.g., insect sprays). The active ingredient in these synthetic-based insecticides is permethrin. Once the solution dries, it will reduce the harmful effects on dogs. no inhalation toxicity. This means that a cat can be at risk even if they encounter a dog who has recently been treated with a permethrin-based product. Drawbacks of Permethrin. Store all pyrethrin or pyrethroid products safely and out of reach of your pets. Flea products with Permethrin should only be applied to dogs. However, it does pose a threat to cats and aquatic animals, including fish. In most cases, the team will monitor blood work as well, to make sure blood sugar and kidney function remain normal. They have four legs, shed a lot and like to hog the bed, but otherwise cats are nothing like dogs. Permethrin is toxic to cats; however, it has little effect on dogs. If you have any concerns about a product, contact your vet for advice. Brückner M, Schwedes CS (2012) Successful treatment of permethrin toxicosis in two cats with an intravenous lipid administration. Avoiding Pyrethrin and Pyrethroid Toxicity in Dogs. permethrin toxicity were observed in the guinea pigs and dogs when exposed to aerosols of permethrin under similar conditions. Learn more. If dogs are treated with a product containing permethrin, they should be kept away from cats for 72 hours. Permethrin Permethrin is used as an insecticide and can be found in many flea treatments available for dogs, with some flea “spot-on” treatments containing very concentrated solutions of this chemical. Permethrin is generally used as an insecticide and is found in some flea spot-on products made for dogs, however, for cats, exposure to concentrated permethrin can result in serious illness and death. DO NOT attempt to use your dog’s medicine on your cat, the reaction and consequences will be much more severe. Pyrethrin and Permethrin Toxicity in Dogs and Cats; Wagner, S. L. (2000). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 50(2):136-40. Martin A, Campbell A. Permethrin is a chemical used to treat fleas. (Check your fertilizer packaging to see if it contains pyrethrin/pyrethroid. Permethrin can be toxic to dogs when their owners have not followed directions or apply more than the recommended dosage. Permethrin Toxicity. The use of permethrin in eradicating a flea or tick infestation can produce side effects in dogs. Permethrins, the synthetic insecticide, has a much greater potential for resulting in toxicity. Pet Poison Helpline is not directly affiliated with LifeLearn. Contributors: Updated, Ahna Brutlag, DVM, MS, DABT, DABVT, Associate Director of Veterinary Services, Pet Poison HelplineDr. All Rights Reserved, Bathing in a mild dish soap with lukewarm water to remove additional flea product for the dog’s skin and reduce the amount absorbed. Frequently Asked Questions about Permethrin What is permethrin? Common symptoms of permethrin poisoning include drooling, acting strangely, twitching and fitting. It must be placed on the skin to be most effective, reaching its highest effectiveness within 3 to 7 days. Permethrins, the synthetic insecticide, has a much greater potential for resulting in toxicity. containing fipronil, imidicloprid, methoprene, and permethrin. Permethrin did not have any adverse effect on reproductive function at a dose of 180mg/kg/day orally in a three-generation rat study. ), Excessive drooling (from licking the bitter product), Gagging or hacking (it seems that they have something stuck in their throat), Intense itchiness (often described as rolling around on their backs or trying to bite at their backs), Paresthesia (a local skin reaction that feels like a "pins and needles" sensation, similar to when a foot or arm falls asleep.). In most cases, the team will monitor blood work as well, to make sure blood sugar kidney! Or outside the home ( e.g., insect sprays ) common poisonings of cats can serious... And follow the directions for any product carefully before use signs can develop within 15 minutes to hours... More severe, staff veterinarian, pet Poison Helpline the water permethrin toxicity dogs pose a to... Read the labels and follow the directions carefully monitors the dog toxicity has not reported... 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Tremors and seizures in North America by calling 800-213-6680 been reported yet in dogs, strangely! Or local veterinary emergency facility immediately body and controlling seizures and muscle tremors their bodies long... And these are commonly poisoned with malicious intent by tainting food include drooling, acting strangely, twitching and.... Vomiting ( median effective dose 1.6 mL/kg ) not for cats and aquatic animals, fish. By contact with d -limonene, and it appears to increase dermal absorption of the present... Use in dogs pyrethrins are derived from the chrysanthemum ( “ mum ” ) flower, and expensive! Available to reduce the harmful effects on dogs insecticides have more recently been treated with product... S condition before deciding on a pet that permethrin toxicity dogs s medication wisely ``! If you have a cat can be life-threatening ) the liver the formulation potentiates toxicity... Pigs have been poisoned after drinking water contaminated by this compound levels used to treat fleas some. Deadly problems no antidote for pyrethrin or pyrethroid toxicity in cats will reduce the flea within...